The concept of the “intimate group” which originated with Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir and was emulated by many other Jewish youth movements also strengthened the girls’ status in another respect. The individual youth movement groups served as a fraternity or small family in which an emotional attraction, common to both sexes in the group, was a crucial factor. Again, it seems that the relative maturity of the girls, together with the emphasis on their emotional importance within the group, reinforced their role within the group.
Likewise, the new sexual group functioned like a family, which had not only its “brothers” and “sisters” and the “father” and you may “mommy aisle.” They were the male and you can women childhood leader correspondingly, who represented parental data on the children.
These features of your Jewish young people direction, utilizing the heritage of your own innovative lady, were relocated to brand new Jewish teens communities inside Holocaust.
This new Jewish childhood moves continued a majority of their novel things through the the first age The second world war (1939–1942). They appear for come good and you may productive, greatest modified into the new fact of the ghettos than adult communities. In some of the ghettos, its overall hobby blossomed, perhaps even exceeding that the newest pre-battle months.
The role of women in this activity was significant from the very first days of the war and the German occupation. Just before the war some movements (Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir and Dror-Freiheit) established an alternative leadership (Hanhagah Bet), comprised mostly of women, in case the male leaders were conscripted to the Polish army. Although these alternative leaderships functioned only partially in the first chaotic months of the occupation, the promotion of women into leading roles soon became evident. The first delegates to the German-occupied area of Poland (from Vilna and Russian-occupied Poland) were women: Frumka Plotniczki, Zivia Lubetkin (Dror-Freiheit, Warsaw) and Tosia Altman (Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir, Warsaw).
Individual relationship between your people in the group was openly chatted about and you will enhanced the newest reputation of your lady since indispensable members of the fresh intimate classification
During this period (1940–1942) many twigs of the youngsters movements was basically contributed because of the women, or included people or lady about regional and main leaders. In reality, perhaps not one ghetto leaders lacked at least one influential lady.
Examination of a couple same-age single-sex groups of girls and boys which common numerous issues shows your nearest and dearest build was also preserved in this development
The ongoing occupation and the ghettos necessitated the creation of a new functionary: an emissary or delegate (shelihah/shaliah – also referred to as kashariyot) of the central leadership. This role was filled mainly by females because of the danger of the “circumcision test” at German checkpoints. However, the delegates of the central movement who traveled illegally from ghetto to ghetto were not mere mail carriers delivering messages and underground press from Warsaw to the provinces. They had to remain at their destination for several days or weeks in order to discuss ideological and educational matters with the local leadership, oversee local educational activity, plan and lead theoretical seminars for the older members of the branch, etc. In short, they had to personally represent the central leadership, its ideas, programs and operations. The shelihah functioned much more like a high-ranking staff officer in a military organization than as an underground courier. Four major shelihot were Frumka Plotniczki, Gusta Dawidson (Akiva, Cracow), Tosia Altman and Haika Grosman (Ha-Shomer ha-Za’ir, Bialystok), all of whom were in leading positions in their movements and acted as authorized representatives of the central leadership.